Remote internships

I have recently switched my thinking to embrace remote as the status quo rather than a short-term situation and as part of that move, we are accepting remote interns for Fall 2020.

We had two remote interns over the summer as part NSURP and this worked out very well, with two very different projects: Fernanda Ordoñez Jiménez worked on improving GMGC-mapper (one of our in-development tools), while Tobi Olanipekun worked on characterizing a protein.

Thus, we are extending the scheme and accepting remote interns. There are many possible projects and we will try to design a project to fit the student, but they can be either focused more on algorithms and tools or on biological problems.

We are going to have an Open Office Hours (i.e., a Zoom call where you can ask about anything, but this time focused on the remote internship options) on September 9 2020 @ 11am UTC (check your timezone!). Email me for the invite link.

Thoughts on software sustainability

This is motivated by the latest Microbinfie podcast, episode #24: Experimental projects lead to experimental software, which discussed the issue of “scientific software sustainability”.

As background, in our group, we have made a public commitment to supporting tools over at least 5-years, starting with the date of publication.¹

  1. I have increasingly become convinced that code made available for reproducibility, what I call Extended Methods, is one thing that should be encouraged and rewarded, but is very different from making tools, which is another thing that should be encouraged and rewarded. The criteria for evaluating these two modes of code release should be very different. The failure to distinguish between Extended Methods code and tools plagues the whole discussion in the discipline. For example, internal paths may be acceptable for Extended Methods, but should be an immediate Nope for tools. I would consider this as immediate cause to recommend rejection if a manuscript was trying to sell code with internal path as a tool. On the other hand, it should also be more accepted to present code that is explicitly marked as Extended Methods and not necessarily intended for widespread use. Too often, there is pressure to pretend otherwise and blur these concepts.
  2. Our commitment is only for tools, which we advertise as for others to use. Code that is adjacent to a results-driven paper does not come with the same guarantees! How do you tell? If we made a bioconda release, it’s a tool.
  3. Our long-term commitment has the most impact before publication! In fact, ideally, it should have almost no impact on what we do after publication. This may sound like a paradox, but if tools are written by students/postdocs who will move on, the lab as a whole needs to avoid being in a situation where, after the student has moved on, someone else (including me!) is forced to debug unreadable, untested, code that is written in 5 different programming languages with little documentation. On the other hand, if we have it set up so that it runs on a continuous integration (CI) system with an exhaustive test suite and it turns out that a new version of Numpy breaks one of the tests, it is not so difficult to find the offending function call, add a fix, check with CI that it builds and passes the tests, and push out a new release. Similarly, having bioconda releases, cuts down a lot of support requests to use bioconda to install.

¹ In practice, this will often be a longer period, on both ends, as tools are supported pre-publication (e.g.macrel is only preprinted, but we will support it) and post-publication (I am still fixing the occasional issue in mahotas, even though the paper came out in 2013).

Improving the UX of Macrel’s Webserver

As we try to move the Macrel preprint through the publishing process, one reviewer critique was likely caused by the reviewer using our webserver in the incorrect way. We support using either DNA contigs or peptides input, but it is technically possible to use it in a wrong way by feeding it peptides and telling it they’re DNA (or the other way around).

The easy response would have been “this was user error. Please do not make mistakes.” Instead, we looked at the user interface and asked if this was instead a user interface bug. This is what it used to look like:


  1. It has a big text box where you input: this is pretty obvious what to do
  2. We accept a file upload too
  3. The Data Type field has a red star indicating it’s mandatory. This is a pretty typical convention. Hopefully, many users will recognize it

It is still quite easy, however to make mistakes:

See how the user selected “Contigs (nucleotide)”, but the sequences are clearly amino-acids. The phrasing is not so clear. Having two ways to execute the service (a textbox and an upload box) was also potentially confusing: if you ask me now what happens if you type in something and upload a file, the answer is that I don’t know.

New Version

In the new version (currently online), we rejigged the process:

The user first has to explicitly select the mode and only then can they progress and see the textbox:

Now, the guidance is also explicit “Input DNA FASTA”. More importantly, if they make a mistake, we added some checks:


  1. More explicit choice for the user, so less room for careless mistakes. Also, the instruction text adapts to the previous choice as does the filler text.
  2. Error checking on the fly
  3. Simpler: only a big text box, no uploading of a FASTA file.

The last one can sound like “bad usability”: the tendency in some usability circles to privilege first-time and casual users over power-users. Also, having to click on one button to get the textbox may similarly be better for first-time users, while ultimately annoying for power-users (although this is all client-side, so it’s very fast).

However, I argue that, in this case, power-users are not our main concern: Power users should be using the command-line tool and that will enable them to overcome any limitations of the website. We also put in work into the usability of the command-line tool (which is equally important: just because it’s a command line it doesn’t mean you do not need to care about its usability).

PS on implementation: I wrote the code for the frontend in elm, which was incredibly pleasant to work with elm even though it was literally the first time I was using the language. It is just nice to use a real language instead of some hacky XSLT-lookalike of the kind that seems popular in the JS world. The result is very smooth, completely running client-side (except for a single API call to a service that wraps running macrel on the command line).

Random work-related updates

There is life besides covid19.

  1. We’ve started blogging a bit as a group on our website, which is a development I am happy about.
  • : The famous Tank story of a neural network that purported to tell apart American from Soviet tanks, but just classified on the weather (or time of day) is probably an urban legend, but this one is true. What I like about this type of blogging is that this is the type of story that takes a lot of time to unravel, but does not make it to the final manuscript and gets lost. [same story as Twitter thread]. Most of the credit for this post should go to Célio.
  • : A different type of blogpost: this is a work-in-progress report on some our work. We are still far away from being able to turn this story into a manuscript, but, in the meanwhile, putting it all in writing and out there may accelerate things too. Here, Amy and Célio share most of the credit.

2. We’ve updated the macrel preprint, which includes a few novel things. We have also submitted it to a journal now, so fingers crossed! In parallel, macrel has been updated to version 0.4, which is now the version described in the manuscript.

3. NGLess is now at version 1.1.1. This is mostly a bugfix release compared to v1.1.0.

4. We submitted two abstracts to ISMB 2020: The first one focuses on macrel, while the second one is something we should soon blog about: we have been looking into the problem of predict small ORFs (smORFs) more broadly. For this we took the dataset from (Sberro et al., 2019) which had used conservation signatures to identify real smORFs in silico and treated it as a classification problem: is is possible to based solely on the sequence (including the upstream sequence) to identify whether a smORF is conserved or not (which we are taking as a proxy for it being a functional molecule).

Did anyone in Santa Clara County get Covid-19?

This is not a real question, we know that yes, unfortunately, they did. There are over one thousand confirmed cases. But a recent preprint, posits that over 40,000 and maybe as many as 80,000 people did.

The preprint is COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California by Bendavid et al., MedArxiv, 2020

The preprint is not very informative on methods, but, it seems to me, that, if this was the only evidence we had about Santa Clara County, it would barely be enough, according to the traditional standards of scientific evidence, for the authors to claim that anyone in Santa Clara got infected. In any case, the prevalence reported is likely an over estimate.

The evidence

The authors tested 3,330 individuals using a serological (antibody) test and obtained 50 positive results (98.5% tested negative, 1.5% tested positive).

This test was validated by testing on 401 samples from individuals who were known to not have had covid19. Of these 401 known negatives, the test returned positive for 2 of them. The test was also performed on 197 known positive samples, and returned positive for 178 of them.

There are some further adjustments to the results to match demographics, but they are not relevant here.

The null hypothesis

The null hypothesis is that none of the 3,330 individuals had ever come into contact with covid19 and had no antibodies.

Does the evidence reject the null hypothesis?

Maybe, but it’s not so clear and we need to bring in the big guns to get that result. In any case, the estimate of 1.5% is almost certainly an over-estimate.

Naïve version

  1. Let’s estimate the specificity: the point estimate is 99.5% (399/401), but with a confidence interval of [98.3-99.9%]
  2. With the point estimate of 99.5%, then the the p-value of having at least one infection is a healthy 2·10⁻¹¹
  3. However, if the confidence interval is [98.3-99.9%], we should perhaps assume a worst-case. If specificity is 98.3% then the number of positive tests is actually slightly lower than expected (we expected 57 just by chance!). Only if the specificity is above 98.7% do we get some evidence that there may have been at least one infected person.

With this naive approach, the authors have not shown that they were able to detect any infection.

Semi-Bayesian approach

A more complex model samples over the possible values of the specificity

  1. If the specificity is modeled as a random variable, then we have observed 2 positives out of 401 in known cases.
  2. So, we can set a posterior for it of Beta(402, 3) (assuming the classical Beta(1,1) prior).
  3. Let’s now simulate 3330 tests, assuming they are all negative, with the given specificity.
  4. If we repeat this many times, then, about 7% of the times, we get 50 or more false positives! So, p-value=0.07. As the olds say, trending towards significance.

Still no evidence for any infections in Santa Clara County.


Finally, the big guns get the right result (we actually know that there are infections in Santa Clara County).

We now do a full Bayesian model

  1. We model the specificity as above (with a prior Beta(1,1)), but keep also model the true prevalence as another Bayesian variable.
  2. Now, we have some true positives in the set, given by the prevalence.
  3. We model the sensitivity in the same way that we had modeled the specificity already, as a random variable constrained by observed data.
  4. We know that the true + false positives equals 50.

Now the prevalence credible interval is (0.4-1.7%). It is not credible that there are zero individuals who are positives anymore. The credible interval for the number of positives in the set is (15-51).

The posterior distribution for the prevalence is the following:

In this post, I did not even consider the fact that the sampling was heavily biased (it is: the authors recruited through Facebook, it can hardly be expected that people who are looking to get tested would not be enriched for those who suspect were sick).

In the end, I conclude that there is evidence that the prevalence is greater than zero, but likely not as large as the authors claim.

PS: Code is at

What’s the deal with computational irreproducibility?

How can computational results be so hard to reproduce? Even with the same input and the same code one can get different results. Shouldn’t computers always return the same results for the same computation?

Let’s look at a few classes of problems, from the easiest to solve to the most complicated.

Different, but equivalent, results

Two different gzip files can uncompress to the same result.

This is obviously a meaningless difference. When we promise that we return a certain result, we should not bound ourselves to specific ways of encoding it.

On NGLess, we did learn this the hard way because some of our tests seemed to be flaky at some point as we were comparing the compressed files. So, depending on the machine, tests would either pass or fail. Now, we test the uncompressed versions

Incompletely specified results

What does a sort algorithm return? Well, obviously it should return a sorted version of its inputs. The problem comes when there are “equivalent” (but not identical) items in the set: in which order should they be returned?

In this case, one can use stable sorting, which preserve the order of “equivalent” input elements. Unfortunately, the fastest sorting algorithms are not stable and use randomness (see below). Alternatively, one can use some tie breaking system so that no two elements compare equal. Now, the results are fully specified by the inputs. This can be done even on attributes that would otherwise be meaningless: for example, if you want to display the results of your processing so that the highest scoring sequences come first, you can sort by scores and, if the scores are identical, break ties using the sequence itself (it’s pretty meaningless that sequences starting with Alanines should come before those starting with Valines, but it means that the output is completely specified).

Another problem is when results depend on the environment. For example, if your tool sorts strings, then it will depend on the environment how this sorting is done! This is a huge rabbit hole and arguably a big mistake in API design that the default sort function in programming languages is not a pure function but depends on some deeply hidden state, but we have seen it cause problems where partial results were sorted in incompatible ways. In NGLess, we always use UTF-8 and we always sort in the same way (our results matrices are sorted by row name and those always use the same sort). The cost is that we will not respect all the nuances in how sorting “should” be done differently in Canadian French vs. European French. The gain is that Canadians and French will get the same results.


Many algorithms use random numbers. In practice, one rarely needs truly random numbers and can use pseudo-random numbers, which only behave random, but are perfectly reproducible.

Furthermore, these methods can take a seed which sets their internal machinery to known values so that one can obtain the same sequence every time.

As an alternative to setting it to the same value (which is not appropriate for every situation), one can also set it to a data-dependent value. For example, if you process sequences by batches of 100 sequences, it may be inappropriate to reuse the same seed for every new batch as this could easily create biases. Instead, one can set the seed based on a simple computation from the input data itself (a quick hash of the inputs). Now, each batch will be (1) reproducible and (2) have a different pseudo-random pattern.

Non-deterministic results

Some processes can become truly non-deterministic, not just pseudo-random. This can easily happen if, for example, threads are used.

In the example above, I mentioned resetting the seed for each batch. In a sequential system, this would be complete overkill, but if batches are being processed by separate threads, it is the only way.

Even with these tricks, one can easily have non-deterministic results if there is any state shared between batches or if the order in which they are computed influences the result.

Heuristics and approximations

Now, we get into the really complicated cases: very often, we do not have a true solution to the problem. When we use a tool like bwa we are not really solving the problem of find all the best alignments given a specific definition. There is software that solves that (e.g., Swipe), but it is too slow. Instead, bwa employs a series of very smart heuristics that will give you a very good approximate solution at a small fraction of the (computational) cost.

Now, definition becomes the output is the result of running bwa. This seems qualitatively different from saying the output is a sorted version of the input.


If we now admit that our results are defined by this is the result of running program X on the data as opposed to a more classical mathematical definition, then it becomes imperative that we specify which program it is. Furthermore, we need to specify which version of the program it is. In fact, specifying version is a well-recognized best practice in computational software.

The problem is that it is very hard to version the full stack. You may write in your manuscript that you are using version 1.6.3 of tool X, but if that tool depends on Numpy and Python, you may need to define the full version of those as well (and even that may not be enough). So, while it may be true that computers return the same result for the same computation, this means that we need to present the computer with the same computation all the way from the script code we wrote through to the device drivers.

In this respect, R is a bit better than Python at keeping compatibility, but even R has changed elements such as the random number generator it uses so that even if you were setting the seed to a fixed value as we discussed above, it would give you different results.

My preference is that, if people are going to be providing versions, that they that they provide a machine-readable way to generate the full environment (e.g., a default.nix file, a environment.yml conda file, …). Otherwise, while it is not completely useless, it is often not that informative either.

Nonetheless, this comes with costs: it becomes harder to compose. If tool 1 needs Python 3.6.4, tool 2 needs Python 3.5.3, and tool 3 needs Python 3.5.1, we must have all of them available and switch between them. We do have more and more infrastructure to make this switches fast-enough, but we still end installing Gigabytes of dependencies to run a script of 230 lines.

This also points to another direction: the more we can move away from this is the result of running X v1.2.3 to having outputs be defined by their inputs, the less dependent on specific versions of the tools we become. It may be impossible to get this 100%, but maybe we can get better than we have now. With NGLess, we have tried to move that way in minor ways so that the result does not depend on the version of the tool being run, but we’re still not 100% there.

Jug as nix-for-Python

In this post, I want to show how Jug can be understood as nix for Python pipelines.

What is Jug?

Jug is a framework for Python which enables parallelization, memoization of results, and generally facilitates reproducibility of results.

Consider a very classical problem framework: you want to process a set of files (in a directory called data/) and then summarize the results

from glob import glob

def count(f):
    # Imagine a long running computation
    n = 0
    for _ in open(f):
        n += 1
    return n

def mean(partials):
    final = sum(partials)/len(partials)
    with open('results.txt', 'wt') as out:
        out.write(f'Final result: {final}\n')

inputs = glob('data/*.txt')
partials = [count(f) for f in inputs]

This works well, but if the count function takes a while (which would not be the case in this example), it would be great to be able to take advantage of multiple processors (or even a computer cluster) as the problem is embarassingly parallel (this is an actual technical term, by the way).

With Jug, the code looks just a bit differently and we get parallelism for free:

from glob import glob
from jug import TaskGenerator

def count(f):
    # Long running computation
    n = 0
    for _ in open(f):
        n += 1
    return n

def mean(partials):
    final = sum(partials)
    with open('results.txt', 'wt') as out:
        out.write(f'Final result: {final}\n')

inputs = glob('data/*.txt')
partials = [count(f) for f in inputs]

Now, we can use Jug to obtain parallelism, memoization and all the other goodies.

Please see the Jug documentation for more info on how to do this.

What is nix?

Nix is a package management system, similar to those used in Linux distributions or conda.

What makes nix almost unique (Guix shares similar ideas) is that nix attempts perfect reproducibility using hashing tricks. Here’s an example of a nix package:

{ numpy, bottle, pyyaml, redis, six , zlib }:

buildPythonPackage rec {
  pname = "Jug";
  version = "2.0.0";
  buildInputs = [ numpy ];
  propagatedBuildInputs = [

  src = fetchPypi {
    pname = "Jug";
    version = "2.0.0";
    sha256 = "1am73pis8qrbgmpwrkja2qr0n9an6qha1k1yp87nx6iq28w5h7cv";

This is a simplified version of the Jug package itself and (the full thing is in the official repo). Nix language is a bit hard to read in detail. For today, what matters is that this is a package that depends on other packages (numpybottle,…) and is a standard Python package obtained from Pypi (nix has library support for these common use-cases).

The result of building this package is a directory with a name like /nix/store/w8d485y2vrj9wylkd5w4k4gpnf7qh3qk-python3.6-Jug-2.0.0

You may be able to guess that the bit in the middle there w8d485y2vrj9wylkd5w4k4gpnf7qh3qk is a computed hash of some sort. In fact, this is the hash of code to build the package.

If you change the source code for the package or how it is built, then the hash will change. If you change any dependency, then the hash will also change. So, the final result identifies exactly what was used to the get there.

Jug as nix-for-Python pipelines

Above, I did not present the internals of how Jug works, but it is very similar to nix. Let’s unpack the magic a bit

def count(f):

def mean(partials):
inputs = glob('data/*.txt')
partials = [count(f) for f in inputs]

This can be seen as an embedded domain-specific language for specifying the dependency graph:

partials = [Task(count, f)
                for f in inputs]
Task(mean, partials)

Now, Task(count, f) will get repeatedly instantiated with a particular value for f. For example, if the files in the data directory are name 0.txt1.txt,…

From the jug manuscript

Jug works by hashing together count and the values of f to uniquely identify the results of each of these tasks. If you’ve used jug, you will have certainly noticed the appearance of a magic directory jugfile.jugdata with files named such as jugfile.jugdata/37/b4f7f68c489a6cf3e62fdd7536e1a70d0d2b87. This is equivalent to the /nix/store/w8d485y2vrj9wylkd5w4k4gpnf7qh3qk-python3.6-Jug-2.0.0 path above: it uniquely identifies the result of some computational process so that, if anything changes, the path will change.

Like nix, it works recursively, so that Task(mean, partials), which expands to Task(mean, [Task(count, "0.txt"), Task(count, "1.txt"), Task(count, "2.txt")]) (assuming 3 files, called 0.txt,…) has a hash value that depends on the hash values of all the dependencies.

So, despite the completely different origins and implementations, in the end, Jug and nix share many of the same conceptual models to achieve something very similar: reproducible computations.

Big Data Biology Lab Software Tool Commitments

Cross-posting from our group website.

Preamble. We produced two types of code artefacts: (i) code that is supportive of results in a results-driven paper and (ii) software tools intended for widespread use.

For an example of the first type, see the Code Ocean capsule that is linked to (Coelho et al., 2018). The main goal of this type of code release is to serve as an Extended Methods section to the paper. Hopefully, it will be useful for the small minority of readers of the paper who really want to dig into the methods or build upon the results, but the work aims at biological results.

This document focuses on the second type of code release: tools that are intended for widespread use. We’ve released a few of these in the last few years: JugNGLess, and Macrel. Here, the whole point is that others use the code. We also use these tools internally, but if nobody else ever adopts the tools, we will have fallen short.

The Six Commitments

  1. Five-year support (from date of publication) If we publish a tool as a paper, then we commit to supporting it for at least five years from the date of publication. We may stop developing new features, but if there are bugs in the released version, we will assume responsibility and fix them. We will also do any minor updates to keep the tool running (for example, if a new Python version breaks something in one of our Python-based tools, we will fix it). Typically, support is provided if you open an issue on the respective Github page and/or post to the respective mailing-list.
  2. Standard, easy to install, packages Right now, this means: we provide conda packages. In the future, if the community moves to another system, we may move too.
  3. High-quality code with continuous integration All our published packages have continuous integration and try to follow best practices in coding.
  4. Complete documentation We provide documentation for the tools, including tutorials, example data, and reference manuals.
  5. Work well, fail well We strive to make our tools not only work well, but also “fail well”: that is, when the user provides erroneous input, we attempt to provide good quality error messages and to never produce bad output (including never producing partial outputs if the process terminates part-way through processing).
  6. Open source, open communication Not only do we provide the released versions of our tools as open source, but all the development is done in the open as well.

Note for group members: This is a commitment from the group and, at the end of the day, the responsibility is Luis’ responsibility. If you leave the group, you don’t have to be responsible for 5 years. If you leave, your responsibility is just the basic responsibility of any author: to be responsive to queries about what was described in the manuscript, but not anything beyond that. What it does mean is that we will not be submitting papers on tools that risk being difficult to maintain. In fact, while the goals above are phrased as outside-focused, they are also internally important so that we can keep working effectively even as group members move on.

Towards typed pipelines

In the beginning, there was the word. The word was a 16 bit variable and it could be used to store any type of information: you could treat it as an integer (signed or unsigned) or as a pointer. There was no typing. Because this was very error-prone, Hungarian notation was invented, which was a system whereby the nameof a variable was enhanced to contain the type that the programmer intended, so that piCount was a pointer to integer named Count.

Nowadays, all languages are typed, either at compile-time (static), at run-time (dynamic), or a mix of the two and Hungarian notation is not used.

There are often big fights on whether static or dynamic typing is best (329 million Google hits for “is static or dynamic typing better”), but typing itself is uncontroversial. In fact, I think most programmers would find the idea of using an untyped programming language absurd.

Yet, there is one domain where untyped programming is still widely used, namely when writing pipelines that combine multiple programmes. In that domain, there is one type, the stream of Bytes. The stream of Bytes is one of the most successful types in programming. In fact everything is a file (which is snappier than everything is a stream of Bytes, even though that is what it means) is often considered one of the defining features of Unix.

Like “B” programmes of old (the untyped programming language that came before “C” introduced all the type safety that is its defining characteristic), most pipelines use Hungarian notation to mark file types. For example, if we have a file called data.fq.gz, we will assume that it is a gzipped FastQ file. There is additionally some limited dynamic typing: if you try to un-gzip a file that is not actually compressed, then gzip is almost certain to detect this and fail with an error message.

However, for any other type of programming, we would never consider this an acceptable level of typing: semi-defined Hungarian notation and occasional dynamic checks is not a combination proposed by any modern programming language. And, thus, the question is: could we have typed pipelines, where the types correspond to file types?

When I think of the pros and cons of this idea, I constantly see that it is simply a rehash of the discussion of types in programming languages.

Advantages of typed pipelines

  1. Better error checking. This is the big argument for types in programming languages: it’s a safety net.
  2. More automated type-transformations. We call this casting in traditional programming languages, to transform one type into another. In pipelines, this could correspond to automatically compressing/decompressing files, for example. Some tools support this already: just pass in a file with the extension .gz and it will be uncompressed on the fly, but not all do and it’s not universal (gzip is widely supported, but not universally so and it is hard to keep track of which tools support bzip2). In regular programming languages, we routinely debate how much casting should be automatic and how much needs to be made explicit.


  1. It’s more work, at least at the beginning. I still believe that it pays off in the long run is true, but you do require a bit more investment at the onset. In most programming languages, the debate about typing is dead: typing won; However, there is still debate on static vs dynamic typing, which hinges on this idea of more work now for less work later.
  2. False sense of security as there will still be bugs and slight mismatches in file types (e.g., you can imagine a pipeline that takes an image as an input and can accept TIFF files, but actually fails in one of the 1,000s of subtypes of TIFF files out there as TIFF is a complex format). This is another mirror of some debates in programming languages: what if you have a function that accepts integers, but only integers between 0 and 100, is it beneficial to have a complex type system that guarantees this?
  3. Sometimes, it may just be the right thing to do to pass one type as another type and a language could be too restrictive. I can imagine situations where it could make sense to treat a FastQ file as a columnar file to extract a particular element from the headers. Perhaps our language needs an escape hatch from typing. Some languages, such as C provide such escape hatches by allowing you to treat everything as Bytes if you wish to. Others do not (in fact, many do so indirectly by allowing you to call C code for all the dangerous stuff).

I am still not sure what a typed pipeline would look like exactly, but I increasingly see this as the question behind the research programme that we started with NGLess (see manuscript), although I had started thinking about this before, with Jug (

Update (July 6 2019): After the initial publication of this post, I was pointed to Bioshake, which seems to be a very interesting attempt to go down this path.

Update II (July 10 2019): A few more pointers: janis is a Python-library for workflow definition (an EDSL) which includes types for bioinformatics. Galaxy also includes types for file data.